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The nature and scope of metaphysics are discussed in gamma and epsilon. A subtle examination of the principles of non-contradiction and excluded middle occupies the latter part of gamma. Delta is in the form of a philosophical lexicon. All three books contain important material on being, substance, 'accident', unity, truth, cause, and other such concepts. The translation is very close to the Greek, as an aid to students who cannot check the English version against the original.
It is followed by an interpretative and critical commentary. Review This Product No reviews yet - be the first to create one! Need help? Partners MySchool Discovery. Subscribe to our newsletter Some error text Name. Email address subscribed successfully. A activation email has been sent to you. Please click the link in that email to activate your subscription. Sitemap Index. He dismisses the idea that matter can be substance, for if we eliminate everything that is a property from what can have the property, we are left with something that has no properties at all.
Such 'ultimate matter' cannot be substance. Separability and 'this-ness' are fundamental to our concept of substance.
Comments: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", Books [gamma], [delta], and [epsilon]
The essence of something is what is included in a secundum se 'according to itself' account of a thing, i. You are not musical by your very nature. But you are a human by your very nature. Your essence is what is mentioned in the definition of you. Chapters 13—15 consider, and dismiss, the idea that substance is the universal or the genus, and are mostly an attack on the Platonic theory of Ideas. Aristotle argues that if genus and species are individual things, then different species of the same genus contain the genus as individual thing, which leads to absurdities.
Moreover, individuals are incapable of definition.
Chapter 17 takes an entirely fresh direction, which turns on the idea that substance is really a cause. Book Eta consists of a summary of what has been said so far i. Theta sets out to define potentiality and actuality.
Chapters 1—5 discuss potentiality. In chapter 6 Aristotle turns to actuality. We can only know actuality through observation or "analogy;" thus "as that which builds is to that which is capable of building, so is that which is awake to that which is asleep Actuality is the completed state of something that had the potential to be completed. The relationship between actuality and potentiality can be thought of as the relationship between form and matter, but with the added aspect of time. Actuality and potentiality are diachronic across time distinctions, whereas form and matter are synchronic at one time distinctions.
This book includes Aristotle's famous description of the unmoved mover , "the most divine of things observed by us", as "the thinking of thinking". Many scholars believe that Aristotle's works as we have them today are little more than lecture notes. Nowhere is this more evident than in the Metaphysics — Ibn Sina Avicenna , one of the greatest Medieval Islamic philosophers, said that he had read the Metaphysics of Aristotle forty times, but still did not understand it. Only later, after having read al-Farabi 's, Purposes of the Metaphysics of Aristotle , did he understand Aristotle's book.
In the 19th century, with the rise of textual criticism , the Metaphysics was examined anew. Critics, noting the wide variety of topics and the seemingly illogical order of the books, concluded that it was actually a collection of shorter works thrown together haphazardly. Werner Jaeger further maintained that the different books were taken from different periods of Aristotle's life. Everyman's Library , for their th volume, published the Metaphysics in a rearranged order that was intended to make the work easier for readers. During the Roman Empire, the Latin Fathers were the most readers and translators of Aristotle's books, of which, for instance, they translated possibilita-effecacia effectus for the Greek terms dynamis-energia.
In the middle ages we confront the canonical translations, e. Among some of the earlier scholars of the Metaphysics were Arabs, who relied on Arabic translations from early Syriac translations from the Greek see Medieval Philosophy. The book was lost in the Latin West from the collapse of Rome until the twelfth century. For a period, scholars relied on Latin translations of the Arabic, particular Michael Scot 's translation of Averroes ' commentary.
These were sometimes inaccurate, having been through so many stages of translation. In the thirteenth century, following the Fourth Crusade , the original Greek manuscripts became available. One of the first Latin translations was made by William of Moerbeke.
William's translations are literal, and were intended faithfully to reflect the Greek word order and style. They were also used by modern scholars for Greek editions, as William had access to Greek manuscripts that are now lost. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. June Ross , Aristotle's Metaphysics , vol. Thomson, The Ethics of Aristotle, Penguin, p.
In spite of this I could not understand it nor its object, and I despaired of myself and said, "This is a book which there is no way of understanding. So I bought it and, lo and behold, it was Abu Nasr al-Farabi's book on the objects of the Metaphysics.
William E. Gohlam ed. Alexander the Great. Avicenna Averroes.
ISBN 13: 9780198240877
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